How does obesity occur?
From the medical point of view, obesity is a disease that occurs in positive fat balance. Simply put, when consumption of calories exceeds their costs for a long time resulting in accumulation of fat in the body.
Sleep disorders, diseases such as sore throat and flu can also violate fat balance in the body. However, such disorders, as a rule, are short-term. Situations, when excess weight appears because of psychological reasons are much more difficult. There can be two reasons: a person eats a lot to prevent negative emotions, or sensitivity of saturation center in the brain decreases, and then he imperceptibly begins to consume a larger amount of food.
Obesity after childbirth is actual problem for many women. During pregnancy and breastfeeding, the woman’s metabolism is converted into “energy storage” regime. This is natural process. However, it is abnormal, when this regime remains the same after breastfeeding. Then body fat increases, and as a result, obesity occurs.
Age – is another factor that provokes appearance of excess weight. As a rule, a number of special centers of the brain, including appetite center, is changed after 30. That is, a person needs more food to suppress hunger. In addition, age-related obesity provokes metabolism features of an adult person. It is not a secret that all metabolic processes proceed much faster in a young body.
Decrease in lipolysis (fat splitting) can have an essential value in obesity development. The role of endocrine factors in development of conventional obesity is low. However, endocrine factors play a significant role in development of symptomatic obesity.
Due to insufficient production of fat-mobilizing hormones (thyroxine, triiodothyronine, epinephrine, noradrenaline and glucagon), lipolysis decreases. This is the reason for insufficient use of fat stores as an energy source. Excessive fat deposition leads most often to damage to the cardiovascular system, respiratory organs with possible development of cardiac or pulmonary heart failure, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, etc.
Metabolic mechanisms of obesity
Influence of heredity on obesity development is proved by many studies. For example, identical twins often have the same type and degree of obesity.
In the presence of obesity in both parents, children suffer from it in 80% of cases, 40% of cases – in obesity in one of the parents, and 10% of cases in the absence of obesity in parents.
Hereditary factor is considered as polygenic
Inheritance of features of central regulatory systems, enzymatic regulation of adipocytes metabolism, family behavioral characteristics of a person in nutrition are taken into account.
Constitution of adipose tissue (hyperplastic and hypertrophic types) is attached less importance nowadays, since both types take place in pronounced obesity, i.e. the pronounced obesity is accompanied not only by hypertrophy of adipocytes, but also by increase in their number.